Energy transformation

Energy transformation, also known as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one form to another. In physics, energy is a quantity that provides the capacity to perform work (e.g. Lifting an object) or provides heat.

In addition to being converted, according to the law of conservation of energy, energy is transferable to a different location or object, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

The energy in many of its forms may be used in natural processes, or to provide some service to society such as heating, refrigeration, lighting or performing mechanical work to operate machines. For example, to heat a home, the furnace burns fuel, whose chemical potential energy is converted into thermal energy, which is then transferred to the home’s air to raise its temperature.

Limitations in the conversion of thermal energy

Conversions to thermal energy from other forms of energy may occur with 100% efficiency.[1] Conversion among non-thermal forms of energy may occur with fairly high efficiency, though there is always some energy dissipated thermally due to friction and similar processes.

Sometimes the efficiency is close to 100%, such as when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as an object falls in a vacuum.

This also applies to the opposite case; for example, an object in an elliptical orbit around another body converts its kinetic energy (speed) into gravitational potential energy (distance from the other object) as it moves away from its parent body.

When it reaches the furthest point, it will reverse the process, accelerating and converting potential energy into kinetic. Since space is a near-vacuum, this process has close to 100% efficiency.

Thermal energy is very unique because it cannot be converted to other forms of energy. Only a difference in the density of thermal/heat energy (temperature) can be used to perform work, and the efficiency of this conversion will be (much) less than 100%.

This is because thermal energy represents a particularly disordered form of energy; it is spread out randomly among many available states of a collection of microscopic particles constituting the system (these combinations of position and momentum for each of the particles are said to form a phase space).

The measure of this disorder or randomness is entropy, and its defining feature is that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases.

One cannot take a high-entropy system (like a hot substance, with a certain amount of thermal energy) and convert it into a low entropy state (like a low-temperature substance, with correspondingly lower energy), without that entropy going somewhere else (like the surrounding air). In other words, there is no way to concentrate energy without spreading out energy somewhere else.

Thermal energy in equilibrium at a given temperature already represents the maximal evening-out of energy between all possible states[2] because it is not entirely convertible to a “useful” form, i.e. one that can do more than just affect temperature. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a closed system can never decrease.

For this reason, thermal energy in a system may be converted to other kinds of energy with efficiencies approaching 100% only if the entropy of the universe is increased by other means, to compensate for the decrease in entropy associated with the disappearance of the thermal energy and its entropy content.

Otherwise, only a part of that thermal energy may be converted to other kinds of energy (and thus useful work). This is because the remainder of the heat must be reserved to be transferred to a thermal reservoir at a lower temperature.

The increase in entropy for this process is greater than the decrease in entropy associated with the transformation of the rest of the heat into other types of energy.

In order to make energy transformation more efficient, it is desirable to avoid thermal conversion.

For example, the efficiency of nuclear reactors, where the kinetic energy of the nuclei is first converted to thermal energy and then to electrical energy, lies at around 35%.

By direct conversion of kinetic energy to electric energy, effected by eliminating the intermediate thermal energy transformation, the efficiency of the energy transformation process can be dramatically improved.[5]

Length/Distance Conversion

n today’s post, we will be talking about the magnitude of length and its difference to distance, as well as how both concepts are integrated into knowledge at young ages.

Before anything, we should ask ourselves if we really know the meaning of these concepts: What is a magnitude? What is the magnitude length? What is distance?

Concepts of length, distance, and the difference between them

An object has various characteristics, attributes, and properties, some we can see and others we cannot but only those that are observable and given a numerical value are magnitudes. As a result, all of the attributes that cannot be given a numerical value are not magnitudes.

The magnitude of length is the amount of ‘complete’ space, the measurement between two points in a dimension or an object, typically the length.

So, what does the concept of distance refer to? Well, the distance is the ’empty’ space between two points, in other words, the space that exists between two objects.

Therefore the distance between the magnitude length and distance is as follows: length is used to measure part of an object and the distance is used to measure the space between objects (or points).

Acquisition of the concepts of length and distance

Length requires a simpler level of compression to understand and since its perception is less conflictive,  you can begin working on these concepts with younger ages in school. Once the spatial skills and the distance between objects are developed, the construction of the concept of distance can be incorporated.

Spatial capacity with primary aged school children is very ambiguous while the concept of length develops little by little and will progress according to the experiences that the child has related to this topic. The handling of materials more familiar and close to the child will help this develop along the way.

For example, we can begin using erasers, pencil sharpeners, or clips to know the length of a pen or relatively small objects. Later we will be able to move on and measure larger lengths and compare the lengths of some objects. During this process, the concept of space will be expanded and we will be able to move on to measuring distances between objects within the school until we finally get to larger distances like those that exist between their houses and school.

“You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him find it within himself.” – Galileo Galilei

The eagerness to discover, explore, and know from the time that we were children, and as human beings with the innate capacity to understand all that surrounds us, it is a great advantage when we are faced with challenges and new things. With the Smartick method, they work on new concepts and advance towards greater challenges simply.

In Smartick, students begin working with length from 4 years old with activities where they compare objects and measure them by using other smaller objects.

Data Storage Conversion

Data storage is the collective methods and technologies that capture and retain digital information on electromagnetic, optical or silicon-based storage media.

Storage is a key component of digital devices, as consumers and businesses have come to rely on it to preserve information ranging from personal photos to business-critical information.

Storage is frequently used to describe the devices and data connected to the computer through input/output (I/O) operations, including hard disks, flash devices, tape systems and other media types.

Why data storage is important

Underscoring the importance of storage is a steady climb in the generation of new data, which is attributable to big data and the profusion of internet of things (IoT) devices. Modern storage systems require enhanced capabilities to allow enterprises to apply machine learning-enabled artificial intelligence (AI) to capture this data, analyze it and wring maximum value from it.

Larger application scripts and real-time database analytics have contributed to the advent of highly dense and scalable storage systems, including high-performance computing storage, converged infrastructure, composable storage systems, hyper-converged storage infrastructure, scale-out and scale-up network-attached storage (NAS) and object storage platforms.

By 2025, it is expected that 163 zettabytes (ZB) of new data will be generated, according to a report by IT analyst firm IDC. That estimate represents a potential tenfold increase from the 16 ZB produced through 2016.

How data storage works

The term storage may refer both to a user’s data generally and, more specifically, to the integrated hardware and software systems used to capture, manage and prioritize the data. This includes information in applications, databases, data warehouses, archiving, backup appliances, and cloud storage.

Digital information is written to target storage media through the use of software commands. The smallest unit of measure in a computer memory is a bit, described with a binary value of 0 or 1, according to the level of electrical voltage contained in a single capacitor. Eight bits make up one byte.

Other capacity measurements to know are:

  • kilobit (Kb)
  • megabit (Mb)
  • gigabit (Gb)
  • terabit (Tb)
  • petabit (Pb)
  • exabit (Eb)

Larger measures include:

  • kilobyte (KB) equal to 1,024 bytes
  • megabyte (MB) equal to 1,024 KB
  • gigabyte (GB) equal to 1,024 MB
  • terabyte (TB) equal to 1,024 GB
  • petabyte (PB) equal to 1,024 TB
  • exabyte (EB) equal to 1,024 PB

Few organizations require a single storage system or connected system that can reach an exabyte of data, but there are storage systems that scale to multiple petabytes.

Data storage capacity requirements define how much storage is needed to run an application, a set of applications or data sets. Capacity requirements take into account the types of data.

For instance, simple documents may only require kilobytes of capacity, while graphic-intensive files, such as digital photographs, may take up megabytes, and a video file can require gigabytes of storage. Computer applications commonly list the minimum and recommended capacity requirements needed to run them. 
This video from CHM Nano Education explains
the role of magnetism in data storage.

On an electromechanical disk, bytes store blocks of data within sectors. A hard disk is a circular platter coated with a thin layer of magnetic material.

The disk is inserted on a spindle and spins at speeds of up to 15,000 revolutions per minute (rpm). As it rotates, data is written on the disk surface using magnetic recording heads.

A high-speed actuator arm positions the recording head to the first available space on the disk, allowing data to be written in a circular fashion.

A sector on a standard disk is 512 bytes. Recent advances in disk include shingled magnetic recording, in which data writes occur in overlapping fashion to boost the platter’s areal density.

On solid-state drives (SSDs), data is written to pooled NAND flash, designed with floating gate transistors that enable the cell to retain an electrical charge. An SSD is not technically a drive, but it exhibits design characteristics similar to an integrated circuit, featuring potentially millions of nanotransistors placed on millimeter-sized silicon chips.

Backup data copies are written to disk appliances with the aid of a hierarchical storage management system. And although less commonly practiced than in years past, the tactic of some organizations remains to write disk-based backup data to magnetic tape as a tertiary storage tier. This is a best practice in organizations subject to legal regulations.

A virtual tape library (VTL) uses no tape at all. It is a system in which data is written sequentially to disks, but retains the characteristics and properties of tape. The value of a VTL is its quick recovery and scalability.

Conversion units for the Area Converter

Acres (ac), Ares (a), Barns (b), Cents (ct), Hectares (ha), Ping, Square Angstroms, Square Astronomical Units, Square Centimeters (cm2), Square Decimeters (dm2), Square Dekameters (dam2), Square Fathoms, Square Feet (ft2), Square Hectometers (hm2), Square Inches (in2), Square Kilometers (km2), Square Lightyears, Square Meters (m2), Square Micrometers (µm2), Square Microns, Square Miles (mi2), Square Millimeters (mm2), Square Millimicrons, Square Nanometers (nm2), Square Parsecs, Square Rods, Square Yards (yd2),

If you want to calculate an area of square feet for a room or area for flooring, landscaping, carpets or tiling then see the square feet calculator.

Popular individual converters:

Cents and Acres, Hectares and Acres, Square Inches and Square Centimeters, Square Feet and Acres, Square Feet and Cents, Square Feet and Hectares, Square Kilometers and Acres, Square Kilometers and Hectares, Square Meters and Acres, Square Meters to Square Inches, Square Meters to Square Feet, Square Meters and Cents, Square Rods to Square Feet,

Area Converter Definitions


An acre is a unit of area in the imperial and U.S. customary systems. The acre is often used in measurements for areas of land and its international symbol is ac. You can find out more about acres in the article, how big is an acre?


The Are is a unit of area equal to 100 square metres (10m x 10m). It is commonly used for measuring land area.

Although the Are is now considered to be outside of the modern International System (SI), it is still used to measure real estate in some European countries. Its international symbol is a.


The hectare is a unit of area equal to 10,000 square metres (107,639 sq ft), or one square hectometre (100m x 100m), and is commonly used for measuring land area.

It is most commonly used in the surveying profession for day to day legal documents such as land deeds, mortgage surveys, town planning, environmental protection, and other necessary property considerations under the law.

You can find out more about hectares in the article, how big is a hectare?

To help with productivity, we now set a cookie to store the last units you have converted from and to. This means that when you re-visit this area converter, the units will automatically be selected for you.